Geographical position

Turkmenistan is one of the five Central Asia countries, being the second by size among them.

Turkmenistan is situated in the very heart of Central Asia between the Caspian Sea in the west and the great Amu Darya in the east, from Aral Sea littoral steppes in the north to the Kopet Dag mountain range to the south.

The length of the territory of Turkmenistan from west to east is about 1.100 km, and from north to south - about 650 km. Turkmen has common borders with the Kazakhstan in the north, Uzbekistan - in the north-east and the east, Afghanistan - in the south-east, and Iran - in the south.


Turkmenistan has an arid desert climate with extreme summer heat and subfreezing winter temperatures. Turkmenistan has a dry, continental climate, with very hot summer (rarely below 35°C and sometimes up to 45°C in the south east regions of the Karakum Desert. Turkmenistan enjoys annually average 250 days sun. In the south of Turkmenistan the climate is also slightly continental than in the north and temperature seldom drops below -5°C. Northern areas on the Uzbek border and Khorezm (Dashoguz) can become very cold in winter with temperatures dropping below -20°C.

The best months for moderate temperatures are April and May for beautiful blossoming deserts and mountains. September and October are great for an abundance of fresh fruit and vegetables due to the harvest season. There is snow in the north and above 1.000m in the mountains in January and February.


Population and political setting

Turkmenistan is the multinational state. Representative of more than 40 nationalities live here. Turkmens make up over 81%.

According to the data as of January 1, 2008, 5.600.000 people live in the country. The annual average population growth is 1,5%. The urbanization reaches 46%, or 2.576.000 people. In the structure of the permament population in 2007 the female percentage was almost equal to male (50,3%), being practically the same among the urban and rural population.

The number of people under working age is approximately 40%, the working age population totals to 56%, and pensioners - 6%. The mean age of the population is 25. Literacy is 99,8%.

The overall population density is 11,5 person per km. Turkmenistan is divided into 5 administrative territories - velayat (provinces) - that in their turn comprise 52 etraps (districts). There are 21 cities/towns and 76 townships in the country.

Ashgabat, the capital of Turkmenistan, is the largest political, economic, industrial and cultural center of the country. It was in founded in 1881, area is 420 km, city population - 905.000 (January 1, 2008).


    Another aircraft of the U.S. Boeing Corporation has joined the air fleet of the State National Service “Turkmenhowayollary” (Turkmenistan Airlines).